Arguments for the existence of God based on observation

Arguments based on observation                   (Philosophy of Religion 2a)

  1. In the teleological argument, what does teleological mean?
  2. In the cosmological argument, what does cosmological mean?
  3. What a posteriori knowledge?
  4. What is a priori knowledge?
  5. What is natural theology?
  6. How does a study of natural theology link to knowledge of God?
  7. What did Aquinas mean by the term duplex cognitio Domini?
  8. By what other name is the teleological argument sometimes known?
  9. Briefly outline Aquinas’ teleological argument (the Fifth Way).
  10. Give an example of something that lacks knowledge that acts towards an end.
  11. Why does something that lacks knowledge have to be moved towards its end by something else?
  12. Which philosopher uses the watch analogy?
  13. What does Paley mean when he says that the watch and the world are analogous?
  14. Why does Paley conclude that the world must have been designed?
  15. What question lies at the heart of the cosmological argument?
  16. With what observation does Aquinas begin his First Way?
  17. With what observation does Aquinas begin his Second Way?
  18. With what observation does Aquinas begin his Third Way?
  19. Give an example of what Aquinas means by motion from potentiality to actuality.
  20. Why must something in motion be moved by something else?
  21. Why does Aquinas reject the idea of an infinite regress of movers?
  22. What does Aquinas claim about every event’s origin?
  23. What is an efficient cause?
  24. Why can nothing be the efficient cause of itself?
  25. Why does Aquinas reject the idea of an infinite regress of causes?
  26. What is a temporal cause?
  27. What is a sustaining cause?
  28. Why does Hume argue that Paley’s watch analogy is a poor analogy?
  29. Why does Hume argue that Paley’s conclusion is not persuasive?
  30. Hume argued that ‘the wise man proportions his belief to the evidence’. What does Paley do that goes against this approach?
  31. How might the theory of evolution be used to criticise the teleological argument?
  32. What is a fallacy of composition?
  33. What fallacy of composition do the cosmological and teleological arguments make?
  34. What is a ‘brute fact’?
  35. How is the idea of a ‘brute fact’ used to criticise arguments from observation?
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