Glossary I-P

  • ihsan – an Arabic word that means perfection or excellence; for Muslims this involves living a life that acts out their faith (iman)
  • iman – faith; the beliefs that Muslims hold
  • inductive – an type of philosophical argument in which the premises strongly or weakly support the conclusion.
  • infidel – the ‘unfaithful’; used by some religions to describe those people who do not believe in that religion
  • Islam – the religion followed by Muslims; the word means ‘submission to God’; the word refers to the acts or practices of being a Muslim, especially the Five Pillars
  • Karbala – a city in modern Iraq; here the grandson of Muhammad, Husayn, was killed in battle.  His tomb is a major site of pilgrimage for Shia Muslims.
  • monotheism – belief in one God. Jews, Christians and Muslims are monotheistic religions
  • Muhammad – the founder of Islam, who lived from 570-632AD
  • muslim – someone who has submitted to God
  • Muslim – a follower of the religion of Islam
  • natural theology – using human thought and intellect to understand God
  • necessary – must; a necessary being must exist, it cannot not exist, it has to exist
  • Nicene Creed – statement of Christian belief agreed at the Council of Nicaea in 325, still recited by Roman Catholic Christians to this day
  • numinous – a spiritual experience that passes understanding; an experience of a mysterious, fascinating, awesome power
  • patriarch – a male leader
  • polytheism – belief in more than one God
  • prostrate – to lie face downwards in submission